History is the lies upon which eminent men agree", and history as it relates to religion is a Pious Fraud - a lie, or lies, which are perpetrated for the sake of religion, or "under the appearance of religion," or for a good objective, where "the ends justifies the means." But unlike other lies, which fade into obscurity when exposed by the truth, the pious frauds of the Bible simply morph into new "revised" pious frauds.
But when does a pious fraud become a lie? Or does the Catholic aphorism, "We believe many things we know are not true," justify the lies? And how many people have to be ruled by laws that are based on those lies? And how many people who do not adhere to those lies must be slaughtered before the pious frauds are exposed as vicious lies? These are not rhetorical questions, as the very future of society as we know it rests in their answers.
These are not rhetorical questions, as the very future of society as we know it rests in their answers.
President George W. Bush invaded Iraq in 2003 because he and his fellow neoconservatives believed they could ignite the biblical battle of Gog and Magog, thereby turning one of the pious frauds of the Bible into a deadly lie. (SEE 500 Days Secrets and Lies in the Terror Wars, Kurt Eichenwald, Touchstone book 2012, p. 460-461). Instead, the Bush Blunder destroyed Iraq and replaced its secular government with a Shiite Muslim government that would give rise to destabilizing the Mid East governments, and foster intolerant sharia, Islamic democracies. The Bush Blunder, would, in turn, lead to the Obama Bungle that gave rise to the reestablishment of the Sunni Caliphate known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).
America has been under quasi Christian rule since its founding in 1787, with the politically powerful religious right that can best be described as Sharia Christians, imposing biblical law wherever they can. Their most persuasive argument has been a pious fraud, that America is a Christian nation, its laws are based on the Bible, and that the United States Constitution was founded on Judaeo/Christian principles. None of that is true, but more than 200 years of believing the lie has made it not just fact, but "divine fact" for too many Americans.
But that is a problem for Christians, because the Bible is a "fraud" and if the Constitution is based on the Bible, then the Constitution would also be a fraud.
The premise of the Bible is, the Jewish god revealed (dictated) the first five books of Bible, the Jewish Torah (Pentateuch), Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy to Moses about 3600 years ago. The first Christians accepted this as fact and began imposing their "belief" on the western world from the time they gained power in the 4th century CE.
Carl Sagan said, "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence." But there is no evidence whatsoever for any portion of the Bible having been written before the 9th century BCE. That is over 500 years after it is claimed that Moses existed. No one that early in history wrote any part of Torah - the first five Books of the Bible. There was no author or scribe who wrote anything contained in the Bible until long after King David and Solomon are claimed to have existed; and, the vast majority of the Bible was not written until after the Babylonian captivity - during Persian rule (5th century BCE), and even later in the 2nd century BCE under Greek rule.
The Jewish and Christians claims are further hindered by the fact that no original documents (scrolls or other writings) exist, while the oldest fragments of any scroll date to the 2nd century BCE; and now, even the Jews concede that the books of Numbers and Deuteronomy, were not written until the 7th century BCE, although even that is disputed by many biblical scholars, as being too early. The oldest Torah scroll in existence dates to between 1155 CE and 1225 CE - making it less than 900 year old.
The first chapter of Genesis relates how the god of the Jews, Christians and Muslim created the "heavens" and a "Flat Earth" at the center of the universe, where the sun rose in a sphere in east and set in the west, and, the moon and stars rose and set by night.
The Creation took six days, where the "evening and the morning" began and ended each day. The first day, the god of the Flat Earth, created light and divided if from darkness.
"And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day." Genesis 5-6.
The second day the Jewish god created a solid (firm) cover over the water of the Flat Earth; the third day, he separated water from the dry land, and vegetation was created; the fourth day, the Sun, Moon and stars were created; the fifth day, all the "creatures
" of the seas and fowls that fly were created; the sixth day, the animals, were created, after which the god of the Flat Earth after which the god of the Flat Earth "formed man of the dust of the ground."
The Bible makes Adam the "first man," and there had been no humans before him; and after Adam, the first woman, Eve, was created, "the mother of all living." These "humans" were immortal and the god of the Flat Earth, placed them in the Garden of Eden, where they disobeyed their god's commandment by eating of the "fruit of knowledge of good and evil." The punishment for that first Sin, (original sin) was to become mortal, to be cast out of the garden (paradise), and cast out of the presence of the god of the Flat Earth.
Genesis, as the revealed words of the Jewish god, was rarely questioned openly, except by intellectuals and scientists, until 1859 when Charles Darwin published, On the Origin of Species, and the Theory of Evolution brought open rejection of the literal interpretation of the Bible.
The "flat earth," however, seemed to have morphed out of the Bible with barely a whisper of it being the word of the Jewish god and Allah.
Most cultures believed the in a flat Earth when Genesis was written in the 5th -7th century BCE. A hundred years later, the Pythagoreans postulated a spherical earth, and the Greek astronomer, Eratosthenes (276–194 BCE) estimated the Earths circumference, long before the Jewish Septuagint (Greek translation of the Bible) was completed in 132 BCE. But the god-given flat earth remained dogma of the Jews, Christians and later Muslims until the Catholic St. Thomas Aquinas, (1225-1274 CE) followed a line of previous Catholic monks and postulated that the Earth was round. Half a century later Muslim scholar, Ibn Taymiyah (d. 1328 CE) also argued that "all celestial bodies are round." And while the flat earth died with barely a whimper among Christians, there are still many Muslims who hold to the numerous Quran surah that state the earth is flat.
The "Flat Earth" dogma of the Catholic Church may have died in near silence, but th Earth centered (geocentric) universe remained an absolute fact for the Catholic Church.
Copernicus had postulated an heliocentric (sun-centered) solar system in 1514, but in 1633, when Galileo proved the Copernican theory of the solar system, he was summoned to the Inquisition in Rome where he was given the choice of recanting his findings as "abjured, cursed and detested," or be burned at the stake. Galileo recanted, and spent the remaining eight years of his life in house arrest. In 1992, after a 13 year investigation as to whether the sun was in fact the center of the solar system, the Catholic Church, on October 31, 1992, essentially admitted that the Bible, and Catholic dogma, were wrong; and the lie, the pious fraud, morphed into a simple mistake, and forgotten.
While it is axiomatic that Catholics believe many things they know are not true, the "religious right" in America, like all Muslims, are compelled by their faith to believe things that are not true. They, therefore, must reject science and accept the absurdities of the Bible as fact.
Science began pushing the creation back from 6,000 years to thousand of years, in the 18th century, then as science gained credibility, the Earth was shown to be millions of years. But the True Believer, knew from the Bible, what science did not, that the Earth was only 6,000 years old, and scientific theory, was just that, only theory. Science, however, has progressed to where radiometric techniques now give reasonably accurate dating of rocks, and the Earth to be at least 4 billion years. Likewise the age of the Universe, can now be shown with mathematical certainty to be more than 13 billion years.
Faith for the Christian becomes a Fraud when it is used in an attempt to persuade others that their "young Earth" claim is not an absurd lie.
Unlike Judaism and Islam, Christianity cannot exist without the biblical "First Man" Adam. Christian dogma requires that Adam have sinned (the Original Sin) and became mortal about 4004 BCE, which is the date calculated by James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland) in Annals of the World, 1650. (Other dates are calculated, but are within a few years.) Christianity also requires that the biblical worldwide Flood of Noah ended about 2348 BCE.
For Christians, the flood was a baptism of the Earth (See: 1 Peter 3:20-22), when the Earth was completely covered with water, and every living creature on land died, except for the animals and eight people on Noah's Ark. Christian dogma has a messiah (savior) Jesus of Nazareth, being born 2,348 after the biblical flood, who saved mankind from the "physical death" which was caused by biblical Adam's Original Sin. Christian dogma also has the messiah (Jesus) save mankind from the "spiritual death" when Adam was cast out of the presence of the biblical god. However, that salvation from "Sin" is only for those who believe in Jesus as the Christ, and comply with Christian dogma.
Christians know that if there was no Adam, there was no sin, and that Jesus could not save them from a sin that never happened.
That same reasoning also makes Noah's Flood essential to Christianity because it divides the antediluvian (before deluge) world from the world in which Noah, his wife, their three sons, Shem, Japheth, Ham and their wives were the only survivors. To the seventy-fifth century BCE Jews who wrote the Flood Narrative, the flood was more than making everyone descendant of those three sons of Noah, it made the Jews the only people who could lay claim to being the direct descendants of Adam through an invented genealogy of Noah, that makes Abraham his direct descendant of the ninth generations.
The most obvious problem with the biblical flood is it never happened. There was no flood in which the Earth was under nearly four miles of water, water high enough to cover Mt. Ararat's nearly 17,000 feet or the nearly six miles of Mt.
The Fourth Egyptian Dynasty Pharaoh Pepi I Meryre, who reigned from 2332 – 2283 BCE, was building his pyramid at the time the god of the Flat Earth caused the flood. But no Egyptian was covered by water, let alone killed by the biblical flood. Nor were any ancient Egyptian or other monuments inundated by the claimed flood.
But the most damning evidence against Noah's Flood is DNA. There were ten generations from Adam to Noah, and the three sons of Noah would all have had the same Y chromosome, making every human living today a descendent of one of three males, each of whom would have an identical Y chromosome DNA markers, that originated less than 3,700 years ago; and, it would mean that every civilization from China, Africa, Europe, Australia, and the Americas did not exist 3,700 years ago; and, because all previous humans were killed during the flood, all of mankind had its origin on the area of Mt. Ararat in modern Turkey.
Modern researchers have been trying to associate the local flooding on the Black Sea with the biblical flood, but the Bible makes Noah's Flood universal, one which covered the entire earth; and the fact is, the biblical flood, like the biblical Adam is a fraud, a lie which Christian, Jews and Muslims mask as pious frauds. But the flood is essential for Christians because it is the beginning of the Abraham Fraud.
The Jews invention of the biblical Abraham was "The Great Lie." What made it a "pious fraud" was making Abraham the first to worship "one god," (the Jewish god of the Flat Earth), who promised Abraham land for his posterity's inheritance.
But there was no biblical Abraham; and, with no Abraham, there was no Ishmael, his first born by an Egyptian slave, and the first Arab, and no Isaac; and with no Isaac, there was no Esau, his first born, and no Jacob/Israel. With no biblical Israel, there was no slavery in Egypt, no Exodus; and with no Exodus, there was no Moses, and no god to reveal the Five Books of Moses.
More importantly, however, is Jesus, the Christian savior of mankind, was a descendant of the biblical Abraham - a man who never existed.
The Abraham fraud began after the Jews had returned from the Chaldean-Babylonian captivity in the 6th - 4th centuries BCE. But those Jews made a fatal mistake by having Abraham come from "Ur of the Chaldee," one thousand years before the Chaldean people even existed. However, neither the Jews who created Abraham, nor the later Christians knew that. Nor was it know until the about a hundred years ago that the Chaleans did not exist until about 900 BCE. And that has caused Christians to morph the "Chaldean Ur Fraud" into making Abraham come a different "Ur." But it is the "Chaldean Fraud," not "Ur" which dates when the Jews wrote the Bible and created Abraham.
Ur was a Sumerian city (c. 3800 BCE) in the southeast area of present Iraq near the Arabian Gulf. Ur was an important religious center from its founding until the Sumer was conquered by the Eastern Semite Akkadian's c. 2334 BCE, that was followed by the Eastern non-Semite Elamites who destroyed Ur c 2015 BCE. The city was rebuilt c. 2000 BCE prior to becoming part of Eastern Amorite Babylonia c. 1894-1595 BCE. Ur was then ruled by the Kassite Dynasty 1595–1155 BCE, then the Second Isin Dynasty 1156-1026 BCE. This was followed by the Period of Chaos 1026-911 BCE, then Assyrian rule from 911-619 BCE.
It was during the early Period of Chaos (1000 BCE) that the Western Semites Suteans and Arameans peoples began moving into the area around Ur. About a hundred years later, after the beginning of the Assyrian Empire, (after 900 BCE) the Western Semite group who would call themselves Chaldeans, began migrating from Syria to the area of Ur at the head of the Persian Gulf. However there is no record of their existence until c. 850 BCE.
A Chaldean tribal leader, Marduk-apla-ur, seized the Babylonian throne around 780 BCE and ruled for about ten years. This was during a time when infighting and intrigue kept the Assyrians, who ruled Babylon, in a state of chaos. Two other Chaldeans ruled Babylon, as subjects of the Assyrians, from 769-748 BCE. After the Chaldeans were deposed, they allied themselves with non Semite Elam and again seized control of Babylon from 721-710 BCE. The Chaldeans ceased to be a distinct people after that, but continued as a political movement, to follow in the Chaldean tradition of seizing power.
That happened about 626 BCE when Nabopolassar, came to power in Babylon and founded the Chaldean Dynasty. He then began a conquest of Syria and Palestine and was followed by his son, Nebuchadnezzar II in 605 BCE. Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah in 597 BCE, and took the King and many of the nobles captive to Babylon. He appointed a new King, who paid tribute for four years then rebelled in 587. The rebellion was put down and the King was taken to Babylon with his children who were killed in front of him. The walls of Jerusalem were destroyed, and the Jews claim the Chaldeans burned Solomon's temple. That, however, may be a Jewish invention, as that temple most likely never existed.
The kingdom of Judah ended, and modern researchers have found that Jerusalem, which was left with about 500 people, may have been the only place of battale. The Babylonians then relocated other peoples from other conquered areas into the area, and it is now estibated that the total population of Judah was fewer than 30,000 over the next 200 years.
The last Babylonian king, Nabonidus (reigned 556-539 BC), worshiped the moon-god Sin over Marduk, who was the primary god in Babylon. Nabonidus rebuilt Ehulhul, the temple of Sin in Harran where his Assyrian mother, Addagoppe, (who was more famous than her son) was High Priestess. He also appointed his eldest daughter, Ennigaldi-Nanna, High Priestess, Bel-Shalti-Nannarat, of the Moon-god Sin, at Ur, embellished the temples and entirely remodeled the ziggurat of Nanna, to make it rival the temple of Marduk at Babylon.
Babylon was conquered by the Persians in 539 BCE, who allowed all of the captives of the various conquered nations to return to their native countries. Most of the Jews stayed in Babylon, and those that returned to Jerusalem did so over several decades. It was during the period between 530 and 400 BCE that the Jews first wrote the Torah/Bible. And it was during this period that the biblical Abraham was created.
There are various dates calculated from the Bible for the birth of Abraham. These range from 2002 BCE to 1813 BCE, and the only agreement seems to be that he was the 10th generation after the Flood.
Genesis 11:28-32, relates that Abraham's brother Haran died "in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees." And Abraham and his family, "went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees," and went to Haran (Harran), where Abraham's father died.
The obvious problem is the fact that the Chaldeans were not a people until a thousand years later, (c. 850 BCE) and it would be nearly 200 years (626 BCE) before Ur would be know as a Chaldean city.
This was unknown to the Jews who wrote the Bible. and because the Chaldeans had originated from near the same area as the "Israelites" 300-400 years earlier, the Jews who wrote the Bible may have used that kinship to give the Chaldeans their origin as coming from Noah. However, what the Jews who wrote the Bible did know, was Ur was a famous Chaldean city where Sin was worshiped. They also knew that Harran was the center of Sin worship, along with his consort, Ningal, the Arabian Goddess Allat, and the Syrian goddess, Atargatis.
The writers of the Bible made Abraham to be the first to worship "one god," which makes the entire line of "patriarchs" from Noah to Abraham's father, Terah, polytheistic. The Bible has the god of the "Flat Earth" tell Abraham to leave "Ur," and later "Haran," which were to seats of "Sin" and all the "false" (to the Jews) gods, and wander without a country.
The Bible later has its god tells Abraham, "I am the LORD that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it." Genesis 15:7.
Today, most Americans believe that land given to Abraham is the modern State of Israel. But it was far more in the Bible, as Genesis 15:18 states, "In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates." (The River of Egypt is the Wadi el-Arish in Sinai) This included all of what is now Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq all the way to the Euphrates river and much of the northern part of Saudi Arabia.
After the Jewish god (through the writers of the Bible) gave the land to Abraham, he extended that land grab to Abraham's son Isaac and his grandson, Jacob/Israel. And along with the land, the Jewish god gave the commandment to kill all the inhabitants of that land.
About a century ago, as it became know that the Chaldeans did not exist until a thousand years after Abraham, Jews, Christians and Muslims began to claim that "Ur of the Chaldee" was a different Ur - that the actual Ur was Urfa or Ura, or some other city near Harran. But, again, the problem is not with Abraham coming from Ur. Rather it is with the fact that the Chaldeans did not exist until a thousand years after the biblical Abraham.
The Jews who wrote the Bible knew exactly who the Chaldeans were. They had been held captive by the Chaldeans in Babylon for half a century - they just did not know the origin of the Chaldeans.
Thus after the return of the Jews to Jerusalem, Nehemiah 9:7 (written after 445 BCE) said "Thou art the LORD the God, who didst choose Abram, and broughtest him forth out of Ur of the Chaldees, and gavest him the name of Abraham..." and 500 years later, the Christian's New Testament Acts 7:4, does even not mention Ur, but only "Then came he out of the land of the Chaldaeans, and dwelt in Charran...."
It would appear that the Jews who wrote the Bible used Ur of the Chaldeans to show that their god had taken Abraham (and the later Jews) out of a Pagan culture in order to established the new religion the Jews who wrote the Bible. Likewise, there is no doubt that the earliest Christians understood that Abraham came from the land of the Chaldeans, and that was the irrefutable word of their god until historical records conclusively refuted it. That
That was certainly Christian doctrine, during the 19th Century, when Joseph Smith, the founder of the Mormon Church (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) presented it as Mormon doctrine.
Joseph Smith was one of the most reviled religious leaders of the 19th century. In 1835, Smith wrote The Book of Abraham, which he claimed was a translation from an Egyptian papyri he had obtained, and his "translation" was first published in 1842. This writings of Joseph Smith, tells of Abraham coming from Ur of The Chaldea, and it mentions Chaldea and its customs as related to Abraham, eight times. (Book of Abraham: 1:1, 1:8, 1:13, 1:20, 1:23, 1:29, 1:30, and 2:4.) Yet there was no criticism of this at the time because all Christians believed Abraham came from Ur of the Chaldeans.
However, recently, when it became generally known that the Chaldeans did not exist until the 9th Century BCE, Christians used this to denounce Joseph Smith, and the Mormon Church as frauds.
What these Christians fail to recognize, however, is the biblical Abraham is a Fraud, and the "Abraham Fraud," also created the "Ishmael Fraud," as the Bible made Ishmael the first-born son of Abraham, and the father of the Arabs, who would be claimed as the ancestor of Muhammad.
However, historically, the Ishmaeli were first mentioned as a people in the 9th century BCE, about the same time as the Arabs, who were not the same people. But neither Ishaaeli nor Arab traditions claimed them to be descendants of Abraham until much later, and that came from the Torah.
"It is now widely agreed that the so-called 'patriarchal/ancestral period' is a later literary construct, not a period in the actual history of the ancient world" McNutt, Paula M. (1999). Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press.
Until recently controversy over the Exodus centered around when it happened and who the Pharaoh was. Today the controversies center around whether Exodus was written in the 8th century BCE and later modified during the Persian period (6-4th centuries BED), or whether it was written entirely during the Persian period, and whether to call The Exodus a pious fraud, a fraud, or an outright lie.
The patriarchs' acts are legendary, the Israelites did not sojourn in Egypt or make an exodus, they did not conquer the land. Neither is there any mention of the empire of David and Solomon, nor of the source of belief in the God of Israel. These facts have been known for years, but Israel is a stubborn people and nobody wants to hear about it.
This is what archaeologists have learned from their excavations in the Land of Israel: the Israelites were never in Egypt, did not wander in the desert, did not conquer the land in a military campaign and did not pass it on to the 12 tribes of Israel. Perhaps even harder to swallow is the fact that the united monarchy of David and Solomon, which is described by the Bible as a regional power, was at most a small tribal kingdom.
Deconstructing the walls of Jericho, By Ze'ev Herzog. ((Full article; https://www.truthbeknown.com/biblemyth.htm / reprint from Ha'aretz.com Friday, October 29, 1999
There is so much Mid East archaeology information available on the Web, that this needs no further discussion, other than to say that there is no evidence whatsoever to substantiate even a hint of an Exodus from Egypt. To the contrary, all evidence points against it.
However, Christians hold tenaciously to the Exodus Fraud just ast the do to the Creation, the Flood and Abraham and the Patriarchs, because without these Frauds, the very foundation of Christianity is destroyed. While Jews keep the Exodus Fraud alive because the Fraud is the foundation of not only their religion but their identity.
And, that Jewish identity is tied directly to their not only being descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob/Israel, none of whom ever existed, but in being not just one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel but also being Hebrews.
About 1800 BCE a mixed people known as Habiru arose in Mideast. In Egypt they were known as Shasu. Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habiru describes them best:
"Depending on the source and epoch, these Habiru are variously described as nomadic or semi-nomadic, rebels, outlaws, raiders, mercenaries, and bowmen, servants, slaves, migrant laborers, etc."
They came from a wide range of peoples, including Hittite, Elamite, and every culture of Semites, who band together for protection or any of the described various purposes, then disbanded as quickly.
Pharaoh Horemheb, whose rule ended about 1292 BCE, had been commander of the Egyptian army before becoming Pharaoh, and had begun a campaign to eliminate the Hebiru who were vexing the Egyptian lands of Canaan, from Sinai, Palestine, Lebanon, western Jordan and southwestern Syria. That was completed after he became Pharaoh, and it is said that he completely eliminated corruption in Egypt.
The Hebiru disappeared from the records after that, as those who where not killed changed their names and became just another group of Canaanites. One of those Canannite groups of former Hebiru adopted the Canannite god El.
El was the head of the Canaanite pantheon of Gods and the father of several other Gods and Goddesses, which were known as Elohim (plurality of the god El). Several Habiru tribes formed a loose confederation and called themselves Ish [Men] ra [strong - powerful] of the God El, (Ishra-El, Isra-el).
Two hundred years after Pharaoh Horemheb, Pharaoh Ramses IX's (1129–1111 BCE) expelled a group of "unclean" people from Egypt, and later discovered that many of the tombs has been plundered. Gold ornaments were stolen, mummies were destroyed and their valuable adornments taken from their wrapped bodies. `
This was not the biblical Exodus, it was more of a fading away into the desert of a people who, with embellishment, are not unlike those of Exodus 12:35-36:
"And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:
And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians."
By the 13th Century BCE their language and culture had become purely Canaanite, which, like all Canaanite languages had a few Egyptian words used for trade, as Egypt ruled the area off and on from the 15th to the 8th Centuries BCE; and, except for the Bible, there is no evidence of any king of any Israel tribe until the 9th century BCE.
What makes this a significant Fraud, is that virtually every archaeologist and historian classifies this Canaanite language and its writings as "proto Hebrew," and either ignores or refuses to acknowledge that the so-called Hebrew language did not exist until the Babylonian exile. What existed was a Canaanite dialect which the Assyrians distinguished as Jaudaai, (not a country but the language of a people) while the Northern Omrid kingdom had its own Canaanite dialect the Assyrians called, Israiau, which too was the language of the people of the country they called Bit-Humria.
Bible chronology has little to do with actual dates in history, and its chronology had to be recalculated to coordinate with 9th Century BCE Assyrian records of events with known dates.
The Bible has Saul as the first king of "Israel," reigning (1047 BCE - 1007 BCE), while David became king of Judah, during Sauls reign. When Saul was killed, his son, Ish-bosheth, was king for a year, and when he was killed, David was made king of what Bible defenders now call the "united Israel and Judah." The Bible kings list has David's son, Solomon, reigning after him; and on his death the Bible has Israel and Judah divided.
But these kings never existed, or if they did they may have been tribal king. But it is more likely that they were invented by the Jews who wrote the Bible, as there is no mention of Saul, David, or Solomon outside of the Bible.
There are the Tel Dan Stele and Mesha Stele, (ca. 850-835 BCE) that are claimed to refer to the "House of David:" but that is highly speculative, and a misinterpretation of the Mesha Stele. There is also an Egyptian mention of the "highlands of dwd." But no unbiased "expert" believes that these prove the existence of the biblical King David, or that they even refer to a king or David.
But what Bible defenders refuse to admit is, if David and Solomon were as great as the bible claims, there would be numerous sites that would unequivocally bear their names.
There are none.
Even more telling is, the Bible states that the grandeur of Solomon was greater than any other king. Yet there is no archeological evidence of either he, or his large army.
"And Solomon gathered together chariots and horsemen: and he had a thousand and four hundred chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen, whom he bestowed in the cities for chariots, and with the king at Jerusalem." Kings I 10:26
However, even if the 1,400 chariots were placed throughout the "kingdom," decades of exhaustive archeological investigation has not found a single part of any chariot or any remnants of any stable which would have been required for any portion of the thousands of horses used to pull chariots.
To make this clear, except for the Bible, there is no contemporary mention anywhere of a biblical King Saul, King David, or King Solomon. There are no monuments, no inscriptions, no buildings; nothing; not a single trace of any ofthese kings exists.
Then there is the "Wisdom of Solomon," who was, according to the Bible, the wisest man in the world, and to whom the learned men of every nation came to hear his wisdom. Yet, except for his mediating a single dispute between two women who claimed to be the mother of the same child, there is no other wisdom given, not in the Bible, nor from any other source.
There is no record (inscription or writing) of any nation or people that can be identified as Israel until the 9th Century BCE. The Bible, of course is not a record, and must be totally ignored when deciphering ancient writings. Otherwise it will prejudice the interpretation.
This "interpretation prejudice" is most obvious in the stele (stone slab) of the Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah (reign: 1213 to 1203 BCE), which he erected to celebrate his victory over the Libyans. Among those victories is "I si ri ar is laid waste and his seed is not."
While this is known as the "Israel Stele," it not Israel. The hieroglyphics clearly refer to "I si ri ar" is a foreign or nomadic people. Which, of course, is not unlike the former Habiru who, during that period, called themselves Powerful Sons of El. And if experts completely reject the Bible, it is unlikely that they would call this Israel.
There is no further attempt to claim any record refers to Israel for the next 350 years.
Over the centuries IshRa-El (Men Powerful of EL) developed as a Canaanite dialect for those living in the hill country north of Jerusalem. And there may even have been a small tribal kingdom calling itself Ishra-el during the early periods claimed by the Bible. But if it existed, it was never the “Bible invented United Kingdom” of Israel and Judah, and using the Bible as a reference only creates an interpretation prejudice.
But it is more than just interpretation prejudice, it goes to the Bible itself, or rather the writers of the Bible who invented Abraham, Isaac, Jacob/Israel, Moses, the Exodus, Saul David and Solomon; and, the Bible defenders who refuse to acknowledge there is nothing to suggest that most, if not all, of the kings of Israel and Judah after Solomon were not also created. Yet because there is so little known about that period, the Bible is used as the authority for the later kings simply because there is nothing to refute it. Or is there?
Archaeology, which was once used to prove the Bible, has done just the opposite, as biblical archeology has produce nothing that can support the Bible claims prior to the 9th Century BCE; and, the more that is discovered about the other civilizations cuts into the credibility of the Bible
What we do know with reasonable certainty is that a weak 21st Egyptian Dynasty had nominal control over Palestine between 1077 BCE - 943 BCE, which covers the period Bible claims Saul, David and Solomon ruled Israel.
About 943 BCE the Meshwesh Libyans conquered the Egyptian delta, and ruled a divided Egypt as the 22nd Dynasty until 716 BCE). Contemporaneously, the Assyrian came to power and ruled from Nineveh in what is present-day Northern Iraq, between 911 and 609 BCE.
The Kurkh Monolith contains a record of the 853 BCE victory of Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria, over a large Syrian army led by Hadadezer at the battle of Qarqar, which is about 350 miles north of modern Israel.
One of the kings allied with Hadadezer was "A-ha-ab-bu Sir-ila-a-a" who brought 2,000 chariots and 10,000 soldiers.
When the Monolith was discovered in 1861, "A-ha-ab-bu Sir-ila-a-a" was quickly interpreted as Ahab of Israel. But there are problems with this. First, if by any chance "A-ha-ab-bu" was Ahab, and "Sir-ila-a-a" was Israel, then it would have read, "A-ha-ab-bu Byt Sir-ila-a-a," [Ahab of the land (or house) of Israel]. What it actually says is someone the Assyrians called "A-ha-ab-bu [who spoke the language of] Sir-ila-a-a." However no known Assyrian record has ever used the term "Sir-ila-a-a" or anything like it as the Byt (land or house) of "Israel".
Bible defenders know that Bible is the only source for Ahab as a king of Israel, and that Ahab is not mentioned anywhere outside the Bible except for their attempt to insert him into the Kurkh Monolit. However, even if the biblical Ahab did exist as a son of Omri, the Bible has his reign as 22 years, followed by Ahaziah who reigned 2 years. The Bible then has Johoram rule for 12 years, after which he is murdered, and Jehu becomes king. Assyrian record establish that date as 741 BCE. That would make the death of Ahab two years before the 853 BCE battle.
However the Moab King Mesha, recorded that Moab had been oppressed by King Omri until 859 BCE after which Mesha fought Omri’s son for 9 years before defeating him. That son then died 9 years later, in 841 BCE - 12 years after Ahab is supposed to have died.
Then there is the fact that no chariot parts for the supposed 2,000 chariots has ever been found, nor has any stable been found anywhere in the area that would house more than a few horses let alone stables that would house any significant number of the 4,000 plus horses required for the 2000 chariots.
Omrm (Jewish Omri) is the first king of Israel whose name is found outside the Bible. And while very little is actually known about King Omri, archaeological evidence and the Mesha Stele refute the biblical account of who he was and when he reigned. But it appears that Omri was neither from the biblical Judah or Israel linage. (SEE Notes: King Omri)
There is only sparse evidence (outside the Bible) of the kings who followed Omri, and it can only be said with some degree of certainty that Omri ruled from possibly from 910 BCE to around 860, and was succeeded by an unnamed son until 841 BCE, when the Assyrian depicts another son, Ja u a, bowing in submission before the Assyria King as he pays tribute and surrenders the scepter of the kingdom of Israel. The Bible makes Jehu (Ja u a) not related to Ormi, the Assyrians would certainly have known. But from that time on, Israel, it was ever a kingdom , ceased to exist, and was then called Bit Humria (Omri Land), and Kur Samaria (a city kingdom with its surrounding land) and later ( c. 730 BCE) URU Sa-me-ri-na (City of Samaria, without any land). In 722 BCE, The Assyrian king, Shalmaneser V, destroyed what was then called Samaria, and deported most of its inhabitants to other lands, and by 710 BCE, most of the remaining people migrated south to Jerusalem.
The obliteration of Ishra-el as a Kingdom in 841 BCE, and the destruction of Omri Land and its capital, Samaria in 722 BCE would, two hundred years create a religious movement that created the Israel Fraud, and along with it spawned the Judah Fraud.
Even this late, there is still no record of a Kingdom of Judah, or a land of Judah. Rather, the Assyrians distinguished the Jews (or whatever they called themselves) by their "ia-u-ud-a-a-a" language, which was significantly different from the northern Ishra-al dialect.
By 701 BCE the population of Jerusalem was well over 20,000, yet, when the Assyrian King Sennacherib laid siege he recorded its ruler as Kha-za-ki-a-u Ia-u-da-ai (Hezekiah Juda ai), with neither "Bit" nor "Kur," but refers to the Juda ai language. It also mentions "Jerusalem, his royal city" and his cities which I spoiled," which is consistent with a king of a City who has other cities.
The Bible has Hezekiah as the King of Judah, but he was at best King of Jerusalem, and other cities, whatever that means. Bible defenders also credit Hezekiah with the Siloam (Pool) Inscription, which describes the construction of an underground aqueduct. But the Inscription does not mention any king or indicate who built it or when, although it could have been constructed as early as the Mesa period.
Bible defenders claim the Inscription is written in early Hebrew. There was no early Hebrew. The writings are virtually indistinguishable from the Moab script of Mesa, except for the individual cursive writing styles of the inscribers. It is therefore impossible to tell whether it was written around the time of Mesa, or whether it is Moab, or a northern Ishra-el dialect, or some other dialect. But one thing is certain, it does not resemble the square letters of Hebrew in any fashion.
There is no further record of Judah for the next 100 years, and Jerusalem’s actual history can only be read through archaeological evidence, until 597 BCE when Babylonian record of Nebuchadnezzar II states that "he laid siege to the city of Judah... and took the king prisoner."
There is archeological evidence that Jerusalem was burned and completely destroyed, as were virtually all the other cities of Judah by 586 BCE.
All of the wealthy and ruling class of Judah were taken captive to Babylon for 48 years, until 538 BCE when the Persians defeated the Chaldean Babylonians, and began allowing the Jews to return to what had been the Babylonian Judah Provence. Judah was under Persian rule for the next 208 years, until Alexander The Great conquered Persia in 330 BCE.
It was during the Persian period that the Jews wrote the Bible, and in doing so rewrote history as a Pious Fraud that not only endures to this day, but one which, when shown to be not just a fraud but an outright lie, makes the believers in the lies believe more resolutely that the lie is truth. The lies of that history have become so ingrained in our societies that wars are fought and people slaughtered in advancing and defending the religious beliefs that have grown out of those lies.
The entire Mid East is now embroiled in conflicts that are based on those lies of history, while the truth holds no sway even for rational minds. After all, history is being written with the blood of the fallen brave who have believed history, while the west, and especially America, hold firmly to that history.
But to paraphrase James Joyce, that "history is the nightmare from which America must try to awake."